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揭穿美方18个谣言画皮
2020-05-15 14:40

  疫情肆虐,人命关天。病毒是人类的共同敌人,全世界都应该携手共同应对疫情挑战。然而以美国为代表的西方一些政客和媒体不把精力放在抗击疫情上面,却费劲心机“甩锅”中国,编造了各种匪夷所思的谎言。一时间,谎言、谣传和阴谋论甚嚣尘上。来看看新冠肺炎疫情中关于中国的18个最常见谣言和事实真相。

  With the COVID-19 pandemic affecting different parts of the world, the virus has become the common enemy of mankind. The world should stand in solidarity to combat the pandemic. However, some Western politicians and media, especially those from the United States, came up with groundless lies. Disinformation, rumors and conspiracy theories about China were making a great clamor. Here are the 18 most common allegations against China and the corresponding facts.

  谣言1: “中国是病毒源头,新冠病毒是‘中国病毒’”

  真相:新冠病毒源头尚未确定,病毒命名不得与特定国家相联系

  Allegation No.1: China is the origin of COVID-19. It is the “Chinese virus.”

  Fact: The origin of COVID-19 remains uncertain. The name of a virus should not be associated with specific countries or regions.

  新冠病毒源自何处,这是一个严肃的科学问题,应由科学家而非政治家来解答。历史上最初病例的报告地往往不是病毒来源地。医学期刊《国际抗菌剂杂志》刊文称新冠病毒2019年12月底已在法国传播,且该病例与中国缺乏关联。世卫组织指出,“各国科研人员正在努力寻找新冠病毒来源”,因此新冠病毒最先出现在哪里尚没有定论,有多种可能。

  The origin of COVID-19 is a scientific issue which should be determined by scientists instead of politicians. Where the disease was first reported in history was often not the place it originated. The article in the medical journal International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents says that COVID-19 was already spreading in France in late December 2019, and the case is not related to China. WHO points out that scientists are still researching the origin of the virus. It remains unclear where COVID-19 first appeared.

  关于病毒命名,世卫组织早在2015年就出台人类传染病和病原体命名相关建议,指出应避免使用地名、国名和人物、动物名称及可能引发恐慌的概念。今年2月,世卫组织宣布将新冠肺炎正式命名为“2019冠状病毒病”(COVID—19)。许多西方主流媒体报道,由于将亚裔群体与新冠病毒不当关联,美国亚裔面临严重排外情绪,屡屡受到种族歧视的骚扰和攻击。英国《自然》期刊4月连发三次社论,对错误地将新冠病毒与武汉和中国关联在一起道歉,呼吁立即停止新冠病毒污名化,避免将病毒与特定位置相关联的不负责任行为。

  As for naming new human diseases and viruses, WHO guidelines advise against including geographic locations and cultural/population references in the disease name. In February 2020, WHO announced the official names of the novel coronavirus and the disease it causes – SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. According to some Western media reports, anti-Asian racism is on the rise due to the improper correlation between the virus and the Asians in the US. British journal Nature published three editorials in April, apologizing for falsely relating the virus to China and Wuhan. The magazine stands against COVID-19 stigmatization and irresponsible actions that associate viruses with specific locations.

  谣言2: “新冠病毒系武汉病毒研究所人为制造”

  真相:所有现有证据表明,新冠病毒源于自然而非人为制造

  Allegation No.2: COVID-19 is man-made at the Wuhan Institute of Virology lab.

  Fact: All scientific evidence indicates that the COVID-19 originates in nature rather than man-made.

  “病毒人造论”遭到了国际权威机构及多数病毒学、免疫学领域学者的批驳。《柳叶刀》《自然·医学》等权威学术期刊都先后发文强调病毒源于自然。5月1日,世卫组织卫生紧急项目负责人迈克尔·瑞安表示,已有许多科学家研究了新冠肺炎病毒基因序列,确信新冠肺炎病毒来自自然界。法国免疫学家、新冠疫情科学委员会负责人让-弗朗索瓦·德尔弗雷西表示,新冠病毒源自实验室的假设是“一种不属于真正科学范畴的阴谋论观点”。

  The idea that the SARS-CoV-2 is man-made has been criticized by international agencies and scholars specialized in virology and immunology. Science journals, such as The Lancet and Nature Medicine, published articles provingSARS-CoV-2 is natural in origin. On May 1, Dr Michael Ryan, executive director of the WHO Health Emergencies Program, said they have listened to numerous scientists who've looked at the sequences and they were assured that this virus is natural in origin. The hypothesis that the virus was created in a Wuhan lab is “a conspiracy vision that does not relate to the real science,” said Jean-Francois Delfraissy, a French immunologist and head of the scientific council that advises the government on the COVID-19 pandemic.

  就连美国科学界和情报机构也反对“病毒人造论”。美国国立卫生研究院院长柯林斯发表博客文章指出,该病毒是自然产生的,并非人类创造,不是实验室的操作产物。4月30日,美国国家情报总监办公室官方网站发表声明称,美情报界同意科学界的广泛共识,即新冠病毒不是人造,也未经过基因改造。

  Even US scientists and intelligence agencies stand against the “man-made virus theory”. Dr Francis Collins, director of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), said in a blog post that the SARS-CoV-2 originates from nature – it is not “a product of purposeful manipulation in a lab.” On April 30, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) said that US intelligence agencies were in the broad scientific consensus, saying that the SARS-CoV-2 was not man-made or genetically modified.

  谣言3: “新冠病毒系武汉病毒研究所事故泄露”

  真相:无证据表明武汉病毒研究所发生过病原泄露或人员感染事故

  Allegation No.3: SARS-CoV-2 was accidentally leaked from the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

  Fact: There is no evidence of pathogen leaks or staff infectionsin the Institute.

  武汉病毒研究所P4实验室是中法政府合作项目,具有严格的防护设施和措施。在2019年12月30日接收新冠肺炎患者的首批检测试样前,并无证据表明武汉病毒研究所的实验室内存在新冠病毒。截至目前,该研究所内也无人感染新冠肺炎。

  The P4 laboratory at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) is a collaborative project with the French government. The lab is equipped with strict protective facilities and measures to ensure safety. There had been no SARS-CoV-2 in the lab until December 30, 2019 ,when the first COVID-19 patient specimens were delivered there. Up to now, no one in the WIV has become ill with COVID-19.

  已与武汉病毒研究所合作长达15年的美国生态健康联盟主席达什亚克博士(Peter Daszak)在接受采访时表示,关于新冠病毒从实验室逃逸的说法纯粹是胡说八道。武汉病毒研究所的实验室内没有与新冠病毒相关的病毒培养,所谓实验室泄漏绝无可能。美国国家过敏症和传染病研究所主任福奇也表示,现有证据显示新冠病毒不是来自中国实验室。

  Dr Peter Daszak, the president of the EcoHealth Alliance, who has been working with the Wuhan Institute of Virology for 15 years, said in an interview that the idea that SARS-CoV-2 escaped from the lab was pure nonsense. The Wuhan P4 Laboratory didn’t have the virus that led to COVID-19, and what has been found now are close relatives, not the same virus. So it’s not a possibility that the virus could have come from that lab. Anthony Fauci, the US NIAID director, also said that the best evidence shows the virus was not made in a lab in China.

  谣言4: “中国人故意出国向世界散播病毒”

  真相:中国在最短时间内采取最严格防控措施,输出病例很少

  Allegation No.4: Chinese are going abroad to spread the virus to the rest of the world on purpose.

  Fact: The Chinese government adopted the most strict prevention and control measures in a short time. Very few cases are exported abroad.

  中国政府在疫情发生后及时采取了最全面、最严格、最彻底的防控措施,有效切断了病毒传播链。1月23日中国暂时关闭离汉通道。1月24日起,中国全国旅行社及在线旅游企业被要求暂停经营团队旅游及“机票+酒店”旅游产品。1月24日至4月8日武汉无商业航班,亦无列车离汉。不可能有武汉居民在此期间前往海外。

  Once the outbreak occurred, the Chinese government took the most comprehensive, strict, and thorough prevention and control measures in modern history, which effectively cut off virus transmission channels. On January 23, China temporarily put Wuhan under lockdown. Since January 24, travel agencies and online travel companies in China were required to suspend operating most travel services and products. From January 24 to April 8, there were no outbound commercial flights or train services. Wuhan residents couldn’t travel overseas during this period as well.

  从全球看,统计显示中国输出病例很少。加拿大几个大省疫情统计数据显示,病毒系由美国旅行者传入加拿大。俄罗斯输入病例无一例来自中国。澳大利亚卫生部数据显示,从东北亚输入病例所占比重极小。新加坡从中国输入病例不及从其他国家输入的1/10。

  Statistics show that very few cases are exported from China. Data in several major Canadian provinces show that the COVID-19 was brought into Canada by American travelers. None of the Russian cases were imported from China. Data from Australian Department of Health shows that the proportion of imported cases from Northeast Asia was extremely small. In Singapore, cases imported from China were less than one-tenth of those from other countries.

  谣言5:“中国早期隐瞒疫情导致疫情在世界蔓延”

  真相:中国本着公开、透明、负责任态度,第一时间对外发布了信息

  Allegation No.5: China’s initial cover-up led to the spread of the virus globally.

  Fact: China lost no time in announcing related COVID-19 information in an open, transparent and responsible manner.

  2019年12月27日,湖北省中西医结合医院呼吸与危重症医学科主任张继先医生第一时间报告其接诊的3例不明原因肺炎患者情况。这是中国地方部门首次报告可疑病例。

  On December 27, 2019, Dr Zhang Jixian, director of the respiratory and critical care medicine department of Hubei Provincial Hospital of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, reported three cases of pneumonia of unknown cause immediately after receiving the patients. This is the first reporting of suspected cases received by local authorities in China.

  开展流行病学调查三天后,2019年12月31日,武汉市卫健委发布《关于当前我市肺炎疫情的情况通报》。当天,中国向世卫组织驻华代表处通报了武汉出现不明原因肺炎病例信息。对中国医生和卫生部门在流感季节迅速发现新冠病毒,世卫组织总干事谭德塞和首席科学家斯瓦米纳桑在《柳叶刀》撰文表示高度赞赏。

  Three days after the epidemiological investigation, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission released a situation report on pneumonia of unknown cause in Wuhan. On the same day, China informed the WHO China Country Office of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause detected in Wuhan. The WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus and Dr Soumya Swaminathan wrote in a paper on the Lancet, praising Chinese doctors and health departments for their rapid discovery of the new coronavirus during the flu season.

  需要指出的是,新冠病毒是新发现的病毒,在疫情初期,几乎没有任何可供借鉴的科学依据,证明这种新型病毒可能会导致危险的大流行病。正如钟南山院士在1月20日接受采访时所说,“疾病有时对它的认知有个过程,现在检测能够比较快地检出来;专家在研判的过程中,以前是国家部门严格地鉴定以后才可以,现在两次检测有阳性就可以定。新发疾病在早期是有一个过程的。”

  SARS-CoV-2 is a newly discovered virus. In the early stage of the outbreak, there was little evidence proving that it could cause a pandemic. “It takes time to recognize a new disease. During the research process, only after strict authentication of government agencies, can experts be sure of the testing results. Now after recognizing the virus, the testing process is simplified. If the patient is tested positive twice, the case is confirmed,” China’s top respiratory expert Zhong Nanshan said in an interview on January 20.

  2020年1月3日,中方开始定期向世卫组织、包括美国在内的有关国家以及中国港澳台地区及时、主动通报疫情信息。中国自始至终公开、透明、及时、负责任地应对、通报疫情,世卫组织称赞“中方行动速度之快、规模之大,世所罕见”。

  On January 3, 2020, China began sending regular, timely updates about the novel coronavirus to WHO, other countries including the United States, and China’s Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions. China has responded and notified the world about the epidemic in an open, transparent, timely, and responsible manner. WHO said that “the high speed and massive scale of China's moves are rarely seen in the world.”

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